sf6 gas-policy development in the Netherlands

Think globally, act locally As shown in this paper the Netherlands tries to develop a balanced policy for ncgg’s in close co-operation with industry. With its active approach the Netherlands policy strives for the use of switchgear that reduces overall greenhouse gas emissions. This will include sf6 gas-insulated switchgear for the foreseeableGet price

Byproducts of Sulfur Hexafluoride (sf6 gas) Use in the Electric

• In the Netherlands in 1989, an accident was reported involving two people who were exposed to unidentified substances resulting from a switchgear equipment failure (Mauthe and Pettersson 1991). The equipment contained SF 6; upon failure, a small amount of powder was observed (likely solid metal fluorides). Both people recovered within twoGet price


Silicon Using insulating gas/O2/CHF3 Gas Mixtures Rob Legtenberg, Henri Jansen, Meint de Boer, and Miko Elwenspoek MESA Researc~h Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands ABSTRACT Reactive ion etching of silicon in an RF parallel plate system, using Sulfr hexafluoride/O2/CHF3, plasmas has been studied. EtchingGet price

Summary Guidance for Operators of Equipment Containing SF and

September 2015 ODS and F-gas Series: Summary Guidance for Operators of Equipment Containing SF 6 and Equipment Containing PFCs . For most of the above uses, general containment obligations such as the need to avoid emissionsGet price

Excitation of Ar, O2, and Sulfr hexafluoride/O2 plasma discharges using

Jul 13, 2018 · Pateau A, Rhallabi A, Fernandez M-C, Boufnichel M and Roqueta F 2014 Modeling of inductively coupled plasma sf 6/O2/Ar plasma discharge: effect of O2 on the plasma kinetic properties J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 32 021303. Crossref Google ScholarGet price

Absolute oscillator strengths (5-63 eV) for Ionic

the determination of the dipole breakdown schemes of a number of molecules (N2, CO (Wight et a1 1975), CH4 (Backx and Van der Wiel1975), NH3 (Wight eta1 1977), H20 (Tan et a1 1978), O2 (Tan et a1 1979)). However, (e, 2e) results have not yet been obtained for insulating gas due to resolution limitations in the present generation of (e, 2e)Get price

Overview of International Offshore Decommissioning

3.3 Netherlands 53 3.4 Norway 57 3.5 United Kingdom 64 3.6 References 71 4. Mediterranean 74 4.1egional Framework R 74 4.2 Algeria 75 4.3 Egypt 77 4.4 Italy 80 4.5 References 82 Contents Overview of International Offshore Decommissioning Regulations 4Get price

Gas Correction Factors for Thermal-based Mass Flow

Gas Symbol Specific Heat, CP cal/g°C Density g/l @ 0°C Conversion Factor; Air - - - 0.240: 1.293: 1.00: Ammonia: NH 3: 0.492: 0.760: 0.73: Argon: Ar: 0.1244: 1.782Get price

Stack Emission Measurements

Stack Emission Measurements. Mobile Stack Emission Measurements, supporting your emission control programs with accurate and reliable ISO 17025 monitoring servicesGet price

ITTC Recommended 7.5-04 -01-01.2 Procedures and Guidelines

ITTC – Recommended 7.5 Procedures and Guidelines -04-01-01.2 Page 5 of 33 Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data Effective Date 2014 Revision 01 Pr e p a r a t io n , Co n d u ctGet price

Regulation Safety Seagoing Vessels (uncontrolled version

The Minister of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Noting the articles 12, 22, 32, 46, 48, first clause, 51, 54, 58 and 65 of the Ships Decree 2004, the articles 5, first clause, 26e, second clause, and 26f of the Ships Act and the articles 3, first clause, 7, first clause, and 11, second clause, of the Foreign Ships Act, andGet price


Jan 01, 1987 · The compounds N2/ O2, CF4, H2O, SO2F2, SOF2/SF4, H2S and SO2 were determined on a routine basis with a gas chromatograph (Hewlett Packard, type 7 6 2 0 A ) ; a s t a i n l e s s s t e e l c o l u m n , l e n g t h 2 m x %", c a r r i e r helium 40 m l . m i n , column temperature 130°C and a t h e r m a l conductivity detector.Get price

EU legislation to control F-gases | Climate Action

F-Gas Regulation from 2015International ActionGuidanceMac DirectiveConsultation ForumThe current F-gas Regulation, which applies since 1 January 2015, replaces the original F-gas Regulation adopted in 2006. The implementing Regulations of the original Regulation remain in force and continue to apply until new acts are adopted.The current Regulation strengthened the previous measures and introduced far-reaching changes by: 1. Limiting the total amount of the most important F-gases that can be sold in the EU from 2015 onwards and phasing them down in steps to one-fifth of 2014...Get price

Dräger Sampling Tubes and Systems - Draeger

Dräger X-act ® 5000 Basic. The automatic tube pump Dräger X-act ® 5000 Basic is the all-in-one solution designed for measurements with Dräger short-term tubes and for sampling tubes and systems. Ease of operation and a high degree ofGet price

Process Gas Chromatographs | Yokogawa America

Loek van Eijck, Yokogawa, The Netherlands, questions whether rapid analysis of gases and liquids can be better achieved through use of a gas chromatograph or near infrared analyser. Conventionally, the liquid and gas components such as those broken down by naphtha crackers have been measured by a process gas chromatograph (PGC), with theGet price

Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act

History Initial petition and initial denial. Section 202(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act requires the Administrator of the EPA to establish standards "applicable to the emission of any air pollutant from…new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines, which in [her] judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare" (emphasisGet price

Van der Waals equation - Wikipedia

In chemistry and thermodynamics, the Van der Waals equation (or Van der Waals equation of state; named after Dutch physicist Johannes Diderik van der Waals) is an equation of state that generalizes the ideal gas law based on plausible reasons that real gases do not act ideally.Get price

Clean Air Act National Stack Testing Guidance | US EPA

Clean Air Act National Stack Testing Guidance (PDF) (22 pp, 129 K, April 27, 2009 (supersedes the 2005 guidance)) Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. ComplianceGet price

Activated carbon - Wikipedia

Activated carbon filters (AC filters) can be used to filter vodka and whiskey of organic impurities which can affect color, taste, and odor. Passing an organically impure vodka through an activated carbon filter at the proper flow rate will result in vodka with an identical alcohol content and significantly increased organic purity, as judged by odor and taste.Get price

Sulfur hexafluoride - Wikipedia

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) or sulphur hexafluoride (British spelling), is an extremely potent and persistent greenhouse gas that is primarily utilized as an electrical insulator and arc suppressant.Get price

European Standard laying down Technical Requirements for

European Committee for drawing up Standards in the field of Inland Navigation (CESNI) European Standard laying down technical requirements for inland navigation vessels (ES-TRIN) Table of contentsGet price

Overview of Occupational Exposure Limits within Europe

(REACH) –dossiers, and statutory OELs published by the Netherlands, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Finland. Further, data on classification for carcinogenicity was obtained from the European Commission and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Keywords: occupational exposure limits, workplace, classification, Europe.Get price

EU-F-Gas-regulation and its impact on manufacturers and users

Sulfr hexafluoride residual pressure [mbar] insulating gas residual quantity [kg] SF. 6-residual quantity (emission) dependence on the SF. 6. rated filling pressure / compartment size / SF. 6 . residual pressure. source: Cigré-Guide no. 276, application of table 25; Example: GIS Siemens. Optimized SF. 6. handling . With State-of-the-art-handling equipment SF. 6Get price


SF, - O2 RF plasmas with a tungsten cathode. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Percentage 02 Figure 5. Ratio of S2F: to S2F+ intensities obtained in SF, - O2 RF plasmas with an aluminium cathode. Table 2. Fragmentation pattern for the S2F2 molecule (from Kuczkowski and Wilson 1963). ~ m/e Ions Abundance 51 SF+ 6.6 64 s: 23.2 83 S2F* 30.2 70 SF: 7.4Get price

insulating gas | NASA Airborne Science Program

PANTHER uses Electron Capture Detection and Gas Chromatography (ECD-GC) and Mass Selective Detection and Gas Chromatography (MSD-GC) to measure numerous trace gases, including Methyl halides, HCFCs, PAN, N20, sf6 gas, CFC-12, CFC-11, Halon-1211, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride.Get price

Oxygen - NIST

Other names: Molecular oxygen; Oxygen molecule; Pure oxygen; O2; Liquid oxygen; UN 1072; UN 1073; Dioxygen Permanent link for this species. Use this link for bookmarking this species for future reference.Get price

Methods for calculating the emissions of transport in the

Methods for calculating the emissions of transport in the Netherlands. 2018 Statistics Netherlands PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency TNO RWS Water, Transport and Environment (WVL) Contact: John Klein, [email protected] Authors: John Klein, Jan Hulskotte, Norbert Ligterink, Stijn Dellaert, Hermine Molnár, Gerben GeilenkirchenGet price

Global Monitoring Laboratory - Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases

Mar 05, 2021 · The table summarizes annual increases in atmospheric SF 6 based on globally averaged marine surface data.. PDF Version. The annual increase in atmospheric SF 6 in a given year is the increase in its abundance (mole fraction) from January 1 in that year to January 1 of the next year, after the seasonal cycle has been removed (as shown by the black lines in the figure above).Get price

Publication 519 (2020), U.S. Tax Guide for Aliens | Internal

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act permits certain self-employed individuals to defer the payment of 50% of the social security tax on net earnings from self-employment imposed for the period beginning on March 27, 2020, and ending December 31, 2020. For more information, see chapter 8, later.Get price